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The term leadership is defined as the art to motivate group of people that act towards attainment of the common goal. It is the ability of group of people or individuals to impact and guide their members or followers. Leadership is an attribute that is possessed by leader through which they inspire others to attain something better and new. They formulate the vision, development of achievable goals and deliver followers with the tools and knowledge for attaining these goals (Kibbe, 2019). Leadership quality illustrates why and how individuals become leaders by emphasising on the behaviour and characteristics that can be adopted by them for enhancing their leadership abilities. The theories are utilized by the leaders to create a significant impact on way they formulate the decisions, and how these are being executed by them. The leaders within the hospitals or healthcare sector must be supportive enough through which precise guidance can be delivered to the nurses that will further aid in delivering their functionalities. The report will provide an insight into two leadership theories that comprises situational and transformational theories. The advantages and disadvantages of these theories will be illustrated to acknowledge what impact these creates and under which scenario these can be utilized to have leverage from them.

Transformation Leadership Theory

The transformational leadership is defined as the theory in which leaders work in alignment with the followers for identification of the changes, creation of vision via inspiration and execution of the change. The four attributes that are possessed by the transformational leaders are charisma, inspiration, individualised stimulation, and individualised consideration. Charisma is behaviour utilized for inspiring commitment, admiration, and confidence among the followers. Inspiration involves formulation of the vision that is motivating for others. Intellectual stimulation involves encouraging the employees to think creatively and be mindful. Individualised consideration involves having specific empathy and concerns for well-being of their followers or subordinates (Ghorbani et al., 2023). illustrate the gains within the staff satisfaction and have a precise outlook regarding their roles. High retention rates can be attained through happy employees that are beneficial for the human resources.

Transformational leadership is related to the high employee morale that illustrate they are engaged, motivated, and efficient through which requirements of their potential consumers can be addressed (Ferreira et al., 2020).

When nurses are engaged and satisfied within their jobs then it reflects quality of care that is being delivered by the nurses to the patients. Nursing employees who are guided through the transformational theory have inclined likelihood to attain the improvised patient output with affirmative health-benefits for their patients.

In nursing transformational leadership theory is liable for stimulating the creativity and inspires learning. The successful nurses acknowledge when the growth of employees is stunted and it creates direct influence on the healthcare firms. They have been careful regarding inspiring nurses for facing the new challenges through creation of the opportunities that will yield growth and development.

High morale can be attained through the usage of the transformational leadership style as nurses can maintain efficient work-life balance as they can be engaged positively within their duties and will be organized (Hussain and Khayat, 2021). Through this, the nurses can enjoy their job, and can have inclined workplace morale, that will further assist them to be resilient if any challenges occur.

Disadvantage of Transformational Leadership

Nurses might experience high burnout rates as when leaders execute the transformational leadership theory then it illustrates that the management is having long-term plans. Employees feel inspired and hopeful for working towards attainment of the goals. It might be beneficial for the organization, if they are obligated or work for long hours for conducting their normal operations then they can conduct their organizational goals. It will create pessimistic impact on the nurses in terms of job satisfaction, burnout, and emotional fatigue.

Transformational theory might lead to overlook the reality. If all the nurses, leaders, and management is on board then transformational leaders might overlook the reality of the situations prevailing that results within barriers to obstruction or communication for attainment of the goals (Collins et al., 2020).

The theory can be sometimes considered as unidirectional. The transformational leadership is not uncommon for the nurses as it influences the what is of interest to the organization and it might not be another way around. When benefit comes one-way street then nurses might grow tired to accomplish their objectives and goals as they do not believe that they will attain benefits.

Situational Leadership Theory

Situational leadership theory is defined as the strategy that is designates or allocates the leadership style for the specific situation depending on various factors. The situational leaders tend to adapt to the style based on the commitment and competency level of their employees. It is flexible style that is designed for maximizing the potential of employees while addressing the corporate milestones or deadlines. The nurse leaders do not have to apply the single leadership style while delivering their operations or services in the organization. It is one in which nurse leaders opt for the style that will suit the working environment or prevailing situation. Nurse leaders might adopt the style that are skilled in how the nurses work in the situation and adjust within their approach. The situational leadership adapts to the altering requirements of the staff and patients through which inclined services can be delivered to them. The situational leadership theory is effective and adaptable within the fast-paced environment that will enable nurses for tailoring their approach based on the needs and circumstances (Anselmann and Mulder, 2020). The approach will assist in ensuring that nurses and patients requirements are addressed while being considering the alterations of staff and fluctuating patients’ acuity. It assists in formulation of the strong nurses’ teams through efficiently sharing the work and delegation of the activities or task.

In situational leadership theory, the leader must consider the task by themselves that can vary from simple to complex activities. The leader needs to have the precise understanding on what exactly the tasks is and for determining whether the task entails for identifying either it has been competently and successfully accomplished (Heinen et al., 2019). The management who tend to make use of the leadership skills adapt to the identification of the capabilities possessed by their team members or the nurses. The style is critically depending on the ability of leader that enables to manage the current working environment through the utilization of the available employee skills. For enhancement of the employee confidence, the management tend to employ the situational leadership theory through which open communication can be maintained and furnish emotional support for their employees. The management can clearly determine the performance and role standards of the nurses. The healthcare field is continuously altering and enhancing, the dynamic healthcare environment needs leader to alter change management styles by considering the skills and knowledge for understanding the circumstances that prevail (Kiwanuka et al., 2021). When management of healthcare organization deploy the situational leadership theory then they develop nurses who comply with the altering organizational objectives.

Advantages of Situational Leadership Theory

It provides flexible approach to the leaders and it is relationship-oriented leadership in which leaders furnish nurses with the directives on ability and readiness. In this the management of healthcare institute will not make use of the single approach rather diverse approaches or theories will be utilised by them to attain the organizational goals. For attaining this, the leader tends to develop efficient relationship with the employees through which their requirements can be acknowledged in context of state of mind while directions are given to them.

Successful collaboration among nurses is encouraged as an opportunity for interaction is provided to them. It creates positive impact on the functioning of the nurses as they are engaged and healthy relations can be developed where ease can be provided while delivering their services (Mondini et al., 2020). Situational leadership theory enables leader to attain the optimized team strength. When there will be optimization then collaboration becomes easy and it becomes efficient means to have attain creativity collectively and through this the valuable innovations can be brought that will be beneficial for the business.

The nurses will be at core of this theory as it needs leader to analyse their morale, strengths, motivation, and weaknesses. The focus is made on making use of the style to which nurses can adapt to considering the prevailing scenario within the working premises. The theory assists in improving the workplace, that includes formulation of the strong team and better morale for building up the strong relationships through which leaders pay more attention to them.

Disadvantages of Situational Leadership Theory

The nurses might have to struggle due to continuous shift within the working methods. For example, sometimes leader might opt for democratic style and sometime it can be autocratic which means that they have to be abrupt. It can lead to creation of the confusion and will hamper their overall functioning (James and Bennett, 2022).

The focus is made on the short-term outcome rather than the long-term working methods. It needs inclined emphasis on the task that is being chosen and ensure that it is accomplished in best possible way. It involves efficient time to understand the situation and determine which theory will yield better outcome.

Choosing from the nurses is also a critical task in terms of who can adapt to which style, the process is confusing and might hamper the output that is attained. The groups of nurses have to be divided based on their skills, and knowledge and then the situation that prevails. It can create problems within healthcare institute where diverse people with different problems come (Miles and Scott, 2019).


From above it can be concluded that leadership is an attribute that is being possessed by leaders while delivering their operations in the diverse and evolving working environment. There are different leadership theories that are being utilised in nursing, here emphasis is made on situational and transformational theories. The transformational leadership theory refers to make changes within working procedures so that efficient outcomes can be acquired. Situational leadership theory denotes based on the prevailing situation the leadership style must be used. Both the theories provide certain assets through the organization through which they can attain the inclined outcome.


Anselmann, V., & Mulder, R. H. (2020). Transformational leadership, knowledge sharing and reflection, and work teams’ performance: A structural equation modelling analysis. Journal of Nursing Management , 28 (7), 1627-1634.

Collins, E., Owen, P., Digan, J., & Dunn, F. (2020). Applying transformational leadership in nursing practice. Nurs Stand , 35 (5), 59-66.

Ferreira, V. B., Amestoy, S. C., Silva, G. T. R. D., Trindade, L. D. L., Santos, I. A. R. D., & Varanda, P. A. G. (2020). Transformational leadership in nursing practice: Challenges and strategies. Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem , 73 .

Ghorbani, A., Mohammadi, N., Rooddehghan, Z., Bakhshi, F., & Nasrabadi, A. N. (2023). Transformational leadership in development of transformative education in nursing: a qualitative study. BMC nursing , 22 (1), 1-10.

Heinen, M., van Oostveen, C., Peters, J., Vermeulen, H., & Huis, A. (2019). An integrative review of leadership competencies and attributes in advanced nursing practice. Journal of advanced nursing , 75 (11), 2378-2392.

Hussain, M. K., & Khayat, R. A. M. (2021). The impact of transformational leadership on job satisfaction and organisational commitment among hospital staff: a systematic review. Journal of Health Management , 23 (4), 614-630.

James, A. H., & Bennett, C. L. (2022). Effective nurse leadership in times of crisis. Nursing Management , 29 (4).

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Kiwanuka, F., Nanyonga, R. C., Sak‐Dankosky, N., Muwanguzi, P. A., & Kvist, T. (2021). Nursing leadership styles and their impact on intensive care unit quality measures: An integrative review. Journal of Nursing Management , 29 (2), 133-142.

Miles, J. M., & Scott, E. S. (2019). A new leadership development model for nursing education. Journal of Professional Nursing , 35 (1), 5-11.

Mondini, C. C. D. S. D., Cunha, I. C. K. O., Trettene, A. D. S., Fontes, C. M. B., Bachega, M. I., & Cintra, F. M. R. (2020). Authentic leadership among nursing professionals: knowledge and profile. Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem , 73 .

Xie, Y., Gu, D., Liang, C., Zhao, S., & Ma, Y. (2020). How transformational leadership and clan culture influence nursing staff's willingness to stay. Journal of Nursing Management , 28 (7), 1515-1524.

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